Caregivers At Risk.

It is not easy to talk about our parents or even ourselves getting older and some day needing help with very basic things. Here is information designed to educate the public about these issues.

Finding the words to begin a long term care conversation. (Genworth)

Beyond Dollars Infographic exposing the true costs of a long term care event. (pdf)

Untitled-1.png

LongTermCare.gov – Basic information about what is covered by Medicare and Medicaid.

Untitled-2.png

There are different ways to fund long term care: self-insure, long term care insurance*, life insurance or annuity with a long term care rider*, life insurance with a chronic illness rider*, Medicaid.
* Insurance is medical underwritten. Insuring locks in age and health.
27% of applicants ages 60-69 are declined because of health.

Be Prepared: Get Long Term Care Insurance Quotes


.

.

.

.

Advertisements

A Solution for Caregiver Shortage: Robots

The government of Japan expects a shortage of 370,000 caregivers for the elderly by 2025, and is will look to robots to help provide care in institutions and at home.

Robots can transfer patients who are unable to move themselves from bed to a wheelchair, or to a bath, for example.

A new robot named Named RIBA (Robot for Interactive Body Assistance) has been developed by RIKEN and Tokai Rubber Industries (TRI). Using the latest sensor, control, information processing, mechanical and materials technology, it is the first of its kind in the world. So far, RIBA can safely lift and move a human patient of up to 61 kg (around 135 lb.).

Untitled-2

RIBA’s arms have high-precision tactile sensors and its human-like body has a soft exterior of urethane foam, for patient safety and comfort. Having robots do the lifting will ease the burden on staff, reduce injuries to health care workers, and help patients who want to live at home.

Another use of robot tech is a walking aid that can give a boost when the person is walking uphill and a braking action going down hills. The robot prevents falls and helps the user carry loads safely.

There are monitor systems that collect information aimed at improving nursing care services, and robots that can detect when a patient falls down or needs help. For example, robots are being developed that can predict when a person needs to go to the toilet and guide them there at the right time, helping them with removing clothing and other necessary motions.

In addition to their uses in nursing homes, robots can contribute to self-reliance for people who have some disabilities but want to remain at home.

The Japanese government wants patients to get used to robot helpers, hoping that by 2020, 80% of patients will accept having some of their care provided by robots. Several Japanese government agencies want to encourage businesses to develop care robots, and popularize them.

The RIKEN-TRI Collaborative Center for Human-Interactive Robot Research (RTC), where RIBA was developed, expects to bring care robots to market in the near future.

Priority Areas to Which Robot Technology is to be Introduced in Nursing Care – get information at METI.

For more information on long term care issues, see the Guide To Long Term Care,

 

Be Prepared: Get Long Term Care Insurance Quotes


.

.

.

.

Promising New Research May Lead To Reversal of Alzheimer’s Dementia

1in3&69sec

Scientists have recently discovered a possible new way to reverse Alzheimer’s disease.

A new study found that amyloid protein plaques, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, were eliminated when researchers removed a naturally occurring enzyme called BACE1 from the brains of mice.

Riqiang Yan and his team at the Cleveland Clinic studied mice that were genetically engineered to have a rodent form of Alzheimer’s disease. BACE1, known as beta-secretase, clings to the amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the production and buildup of plaques.

When the BACE1 enzyme was removed from the mouse brains, formation of amyloid plaques stopped, and plaque already in the brains of the mice disintegrated. Removal of the enzyme also improved learning and memory in the mice.

In the study, the scientists gradually removed BACE1 from the mice as they aged. By the time the mice were 10 months old (equivalent to the human age of 50 years) they no longer had any amyloid plaque in their brains.

Reducing BACE1 levels in the offspring mice also reversed other conditions found in Alzheimer’s disease, such as microglial cell activation and the formation of abnormal neuronal processes.

Yan published some of his discoveries about BACE1 in 1999 in the journal Nature. This recent study, published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, is the first one in which researchers have seen a dramatic reversal of amyloid deposits in the brains of mice. It may lead to new therapies that could reverse Alzheimer’s disease. The next step will be to see if human brains react the same way.

Find out about the care of people with Alzheimer’s disease at the Guide To Long Term Care.

 

Be Prepared: Get Long Term Care Insurance Quotes


.

.

.

.

Diabetes drug doing double duty as Alzheimer’s therapy

A drug developed for treating diabetes now shows promise for Alzheimer’s patients, according to scientists at England’s Lancaster University. The drug is described as a triple receptor agonist, or TA. It combines hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and Glucagon, activating these three receptors at the same time. The new study is published in the journal Brain Research.

A group of mice with Alzheimer’s-related symptoms were tested in a spatial water maze. The TA drug was injected once a day for two months. The mice who were treated with the drug remembered their path better than the control group.

alz101b

In addition to the memory improvement, other symptoms were improved: the accumulation of plaque in the brain was reduced; brain nerve cells were protected from deterioration and loss; and chronic nerve inflammation was reduced, as well as oxidative stress in the cortex and hippocampus. Increased levels of synaptophysin indicated protection from synaptic loss that occurs in Alzheimer’s. An increase of doublecortin positive cells showed improved neurogenesis.

Other diabetes drugs have shown promise for Alzheimer’s patients. The two diseases are known to be related, and type 2 diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Clinical trials are proceeding to investigate the neuroprotective effects of extendin-4 and liraglutide.

Alzheimer’s cases are expected to triple in the next forty years, requiring more long term care. The increase in patients will bring financial challenges as well as medical ones. For more information on supporting Alzheimer’s and dementia patients, see the Alzheimer’s Section on Guide To Long Term Care.

 

Be Prepared: Get A Long Term Care Insurance Quote


.

.

.

.

Insomnia increases Alzheimer’s risk

Just one night without enough sleep can cause harmful proteins to build up in the brain, increasing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a new study.

Past studies already linked insufficient sleep to increased risk of Alzheimer’s and other chronic diseases — but this recent study from Washington University,published in the Annals of Neurology, discovered what insomnia actually does to the brain.

1in3&69sec

One of the functions of sleep is to clear the brain of waste, including amyloid beta proteins which can bond with each other and form plaques on nerve cells. These plaques build up in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.

People with a genetic tendency for Alzheimer’s disease have higher than normal levels of beta amyloid proteins, even before they develop symptoms. After a night without sleep, these higher levels appeared in the healthy study participants.

Inadequate sleep has been linked to a 1.5 fold increase in the odds of developing Alzheimer’s. It’s not surprising, therefore, that research shows that sleep disorders such as sleep apnea increase the risk.

In the study, eight participants with no previous sleep or memory problems were instructed to either stay awake all night, get a normal night’s rest, or use the drug sodium oxybate to help them sleep. The sleep aid is supposed to increase the period of deep, dreamless sleep when the brain is thought to restore itself.

The scientists tested the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding each participant’s brain for amyloid proteins. Measurements were taken before the night of the test, and then every 2 hours the next day, to show how the night of sleep or no sleep affected the accumulation of these proteins in the brain.

Study participants who went without sleep for just one night had a 25-30% increase in the beta-amyloid proteins in their cerebrospinal fluid, bringing the levels to what researchers would expect to see in people who have genes for Alzheimer’s disease. Before the test, the participants all had normal levels. The pills designed to promote the deep sleep did not affect the levels of amyloid protein.

In a healthy person, normal sleep eliminates waste and restores the brain each night. But repeated nights of insufficient rest may overwhelm the brain’s recovery system, allowing amyloid proteins to build up and form plaques which interfere with the brain’s functioning.

For information on Alzheimer’s and also long term care insurance, see Alzheimer’s Section on the Guide To Long Term Care.

 

Long Term Care Insurance Quote


.

.

.

.

Millennials are most aware about long term care insurance

Only 20% of Americans have taken steps towards financing long term care, including even researching the costs. Millennials, who have long known that Social Security may not exist by the time they retire, are the generation most likely to have taken action on long term care insurance, according to Genworth Life Insurance Company, a long term care insurer since 1974.

Of people age 65 and older, 70% will need long term care at some point. However, only 52% of baby boomers believe they will need care. Millennials and members of Generation X are more realistic; 64% of Millennials (age 34 and younger) and 65% of Generation X (age 35-50) expect they may need long term care in the future.

dementia

Most Americans (66%) mistakenly believe government programs will cover the costs of long term care. But Medicare only pays for skilled services or rehabilitative care, not for non-skilled assistance with activities of daily living, which is the bulk of long term care services.

Here are the 2016 national average costs for long term care in the United States (costs vary by state): $225/day or $6,844/month for a semi-private room in a nursing home; $253/day or $7,698/month for a private room in a nursing home; $119/day or $3,628/month for a one-bedroom space in an assisted living facility; $20.50/hour for a health aide; $20/hour for homemaker services; $68/day in an adult day health care center.

For those who are not prepared financially to handle their care costs, the burden will fall on their families and communities. It’s important for people who are growing older to talk with their families about their possible future needs and develop a plan — including how they will pay for care if needed.

Other facts the Genworth study showed Americans were uninformed about: 52% did not know that long term care insurance can cover help in their homes; 61% did not know that long term care can be personalized and that the insurer can help them find good care providers.

Insurers say people are never too young to begin planning for long term care costs, which can be a major expense and quickly use up retirement savings. To find out about long term care insurance, see the Guide To Long Term Care

Long Term Care Insurance Quote


.

.

.

.

More insights on Alzheimer’s disease – how some brains are protected

A feature of the brain’s neurons called dendritic spines may protect against dementia, according to new findings.

Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques appear in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s, but not everyone who has these formations goes on to develop the disease. Between 30 and 50 percent of patients with the plaques and tangles do not develop Alzheimer’s disease. Why not? Scientists have been looking for the reasons.

Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham found the answer may lie in dendritic spines. The dendritic spines of a neuron help it make connections with other neurons and send information. These parts of the neuron may protect against Alzheimer’s disease.

Dendrites, the branched projections of a neuron that transfer electrochemical stimulation from other neural cells to the cell body, have small membranous protrustions called dendritic spines. Each dendritic spine receives input from a single axon at the synapse. The loss of dendritic spines results in the loss of synapses, which can impair cognition. Logically, subects with normal brains would have healthy dendritic spines, and those with dementia would not. The researchers tested the structures and published the results in the journal Annals of Neurology.

The scientists compared dendritic spines in 21 patients with Alzheimer’s, 8 patients who had Alzheimer’s brain changes but no symptoms, and 12 healthy patients. Using bright-field microscopy, Professor Jeremy Herskowitz and the team took images of the dendritic spines, then used the images to create a 3-D digital reconstruction.

The healthy control subjects had more dendritic spines than the subjects with Alzheimer’s. The subjects with Alzheimer’s brain changes but no symptoms also had more spines than the Alzheimer’s subjects — and almost the same dendritic spine density as the healthy subjects. The group with pathology but no symptoms group had very long dendritic spines, longer than both the other groups.

Longer dendritic spines might indicate greater neuroplasticity — the capacity to change and form new neural connections. Increased neuroplasticity could enable the neurons to bypass plaques and tangles, and still communicate with other neurons. If so, this phenomenon could explain why some people who have Alzheimer’s pathology do not show cognitive impairment.

The research suggests that it may be possible for the brain to rebuild neurons. The information gained in the study may help scientists to develop new therapies, especially when brain changes are detected before symptoms appear.

In 2014, a study at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York, published in the journal Science, showed that getting sleep after learning helps neurons form connections, through dendritic branches, that may help brain cells pass information to each other and facilitate long-term memory.

The scientists observed mice that were genetically modified so a particular protein in their brain cells would fluoresce when viewed with a laser scanning microscope. The fluorescence allowed the team to track the growth of new spines along each branch of a dendrite. The mice sprouted new dendritic spines within 6 hours of learning a new task. Different structural changes occurred for different types of learning.

Healthier and more numerous dendritic spines may be a genetic trait, but the brain also may respond to healthy diet and lifestyle. According to Medical News Today, research suggests that as many as a third of dementia cases can be prevented by regular exercise and an active social life.

For more information on Alzheimer’s and dementia, and care choices, see the Guide To Long Term Care.

 

Long Term Care Insurance Quote


.

.

.

.