More insights on Alzheimer’s disease – how some brains are protected

A feature of the brain’s neurons called dendritic spines may protect against dementia, according to new findings.

Neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques appear in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s, but not everyone who has these formations goes on to develop the disease. Between 30 and 50 percent of patients with the plaques and tangles do not develop Alzheimer’s disease. Why not? Scientists have been looking for the reasons.

Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham found the answer may lie in dendritic spines. The dendritic spines of a neuron help it make connections with other neurons and send information. These parts of the neuron may protect against Alzheimer’s disease.

Dendrites, the branched projections of a neuron that transfer electrochemical stimulation from other neural cells to the cell body, have small membranous protrustions called dendritic spines. Each dendritic spine receives input from a single axon at the synapse. The loss of dendritic spines results in the loss of synapses, which can impair cognition. Logically, subects with normal brains would have healthy dendritic spines, and those with dementia would not. The researchers tested the structures and published the results in the journal Annals of Neurology.

The scientists compared dendritic spines in 21 patients with Alzheimer’s, 8 patients who had Alzheimer’s brain changes but no symptoms, and 12 healthy patients. Using bright-field microscopy, Professor Jeremy Herskowitz and the team took images of the dendritic spines, then used the images to create a 3-D digital reconstruction.

The healthy control subjects had more dendritic spines than the subjects with Alzheimer’s. The subjects with Alzheimer’s brain changes but no symptoms also had more spines than the Alzheimer’s subjects — and almost the same dendritic spine density as the healthy subjects. The group with pathology but no symptoms group had very long dendritic spines, longer than both the other groups.

Longer dendritic spines might indicate greater neuroplasticity — the capacity to change and form new neural connections. Increased neuroplasticity could enable the neurons to bypass plaques and tangles, and still communicate with other neurons. If so, this phenomenon could explain why some people who have Alzheimer’s pathology do not show cognitive impairment.

The research suggests that it may be possible for the brain to rebuild neurons. The information gained in the study may help scientists to develop new therapies, especially when brain changes are detected before symptoms appear.

In 2014, a study at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York, published in the journal Science, showed that getting sleep after learning helps neurons form connections, through dendritic branches, that may help brain cells pass information to each other and facilitate long-term memory.

The scientists observed mice that were genetically modified so a particular protein in their brain cells would fluoresce when viewed with a laser scanning microscope. The fluorescence allowed the team to track the growth of new spines along each branch of a dendrite. The mice sprouted new dendritic spines within 6 hours of learning a new task. Different structural changes occurred for different types of learning.

Healthier and more numerous dendritic spines may be a genetic trait, but the brain also may respond to healthy diet and lifestyle. According to Medical News Today, research suggests that as many as a third of dementia cases can be prevented by regular exercise and an active social life.

For more information on Alzheimer’s and dementia, and care choices, see the Guide To Long Term Care.

 

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Nine lifestyle changes can reduce dementia risk

Nine factors that contribute to the risk of dementia

  • Mid-life hearing loss – responsible for 9% of the risk
  • Failing to complete secondary education – 8%
  • Smoking – 5%
  • Failing to seek early treatment for depression – 4%
  • Physical inactivity – 3%
  • Social isolation – 2%
  • High blood pressure – 2%
  • Obesity – 1%
  • Type 2 diabetes – 1%

These risk factors – which are described as potentially modifiable – add up to 35%. The other 65% of dementia risk is thought to be potentially non-modifiable.
READ  ARTICLE HERE

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Note: Insure before the diagnosis. Once diagnosed insurance is no longer available.

 

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Mineral water may help Alzheimer’s

The silicon in mineral water may help Alzheimer’s by removing aluminum

Aluminium is widely present in our environment, and we are exposed to it in items such as bread, tea, wine, aspirin and other drugs, baby food, cookware, and cosmetics. It is even in the air we breathe. Aluminum can enter the iron transport system in the bloodstream and bypass the body’s natural barriers to toxins, accumulating in our bodies and brains.

Research has shown that aluminum exposure can cause the neurofibrillary tangles found in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. Aluminum toxicity has also been linked to Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases.

However, drinking mineral water that contains silicic acid, or silica, can help us excrete aluminum. The recommended amount of silica is 10 mg/day to protect against the adverse effects of aluminum absorption.

Clinical trials by Professor Christopher Exley of Keele University showed that drinking about a liter every day of mineral water containing 35 mg/liter of silicon sped up the removal of aluminium through the kidneys. After thirteen weeks, subjects showed significant reductions in the amount of aluminum in their bodies, even up to 70%. Along with the removal of aluminum came significant improvements in cognitive function and mental health, without side effects.

The silica follows water molecules through the gut wall and once it gets into the bloodstream, it unites with aluminium to form hydroxyaluminosilicate. This form of aluminium can be easily filtered by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

The mineral water studied contained 35mg of silicon per liter. Brands of mineral water that contain silica include Fiji, which has 45 mg/liter, and Volvic, which has 20 mg/liter.

There are also foods naturally high in silica: brown rice, oats, millet, barley, potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes, red beets, asparagus, bananas, green beans, and carrots.

For information on Alzheimer’s care, see the Guide To Long Term Care

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